Thursday, May 21, 2020
Our homo ancestors date back to about 2.5 million years ago. Classification of the genus Homo into species and subspecies remains poorly defined and subject to incomplete information, leading to difficulties in binomial naming, and the use of common names, such as Neanderthal and Denisovan. With that being said, many people get a misunderstanding when discussing our homo ancestors. The biggest issue is knowing what a species are actually apart of the genus homo and who isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Several species, including Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus africanus, and Australopithecus afarensis, have been proposed as the direct ancestor of the Homo lineage. These species have morphological features that align them withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Homo habilis had smaller molars and larger brains than the australopithecines, and made tools from stone and perhaps animal bones. One of the first known hominids, it was nicknamed handy man by discoverer Louis Leake y due to its association with stone tools. Some scientists have proposed moving this species out of Homo and into Australopithecus due to the morphology of its skeleton being more adapted to living on trees rather than to moving on two legs like Homo sapiens. Homo rudolfensis findings in Kenya have been suggested to be Homo habilis, but scientists are unsure. The fossils found from these two species are said to be from about 1.8 million years ago. Homo georgicus, named after the country Georgia, is said to possibly be an intermediate form between Homo erectus and Homo habilis or a sub species of Homo erectus. Homo erectus lived from about 1.8 million to about 70,000 years ago. Many scientist believe that the early stages of erectus, about 1.8 to 1.2 million years ago, is a separate species called Homo ergaster, seen as a sub species of erectus. In the early Pleistocene, 1.5Ã¢â¬â1 Ma, in Africa some populations of Homo habilis are thought to have evolved more complex brains and made more elaborate stone tools; these differences and others are sufficient for anthropologists to classify them as a new species, Homo erectus. The next two species are said to be a mix between Homo
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Product: An established beverage manufacturer is introducing a completely new product Ã¢â¬â flavored milk beverages. The target market is 6-12 years old. Ã Ã The product is being launched nationwide and that the retail price, which has been set based on research done, is a dollar per 240ml carton. We will write a custom essay sample on Managing the Total Marketing Effort or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã The cartons are being sold to retail outlets for $0.80. Conducting an accurate break-even analysis requires a careful examination and study of costs and prices in your business. (entrepreneur.com, 2006) Financials Controls: a. Cost of the project All aspects of the cost of manufacture must be taken into account in order to accurately estimate the total cost of the project.Ã LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say hypothetically that 100,000 cartons are being manufactured, and that cost of making the milk is $5,000, bearing in mind that flavorings, preservatives and sugar is added to dairy milk to make it flavored. Additional costs pertaining to this include packaging, which comes to an amount of $15,000, cost of labeling is $5,000 and distribution to 10,000 retail outlets across the country is going to cost approximately $15,000. Ã In addition to this advertising is estimated to cost approximately $25,000. Bearing all this in mind, the total cost for 100,000 cartons comes to $65,000. b. Revenue forecast It is estimated based on market research done that 90% of the product will sell, with the main target market being six to 12 year olds.Ã From this we can deduce that e 10% of the total amount of product manufactured will spoil or be damaged. Given that the price for each carton is $1, and that total cost of production and distribution is $65,000, and further that $80,000 will be expected to be generated by sales to retailers, this means that the manufacturer will generate $15,000 of profit per 1000,000 cartons of flavored milk. Part 2 Marketing strategies Marketing is this is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to satisfy customers (CFDC, 2006). This paper assesses which marketing strategy would best suit the project by comparing two marketing mediums, television and print, in a newspaper. Pros of television marketing TV marketing allows strategies such as immediate entry into a personÃ¢â¬â¢s lounge, repetition and the drumming of the message into those on the receiving end. Ã Targeting can be done in a variety of ways Ã¢â¬â the number of times the advert is repeated, the time it is played and the program it is played during can all impact on the message the advert is trying to bring across.Ã The same advert can be distributed among a variety of channels.Ã The impact is subconscious.Ã Statistics also show that more children are watching TV in the afternoons than ever before.Ã Advertisers using the medium of TV have many options. Cons of television marketing It is expensive, and much of its impact is lost when people hop between channels. Pros of newspaper marketing The advert is physical and can be seen time and time again and referred back to by the person.Ã Some targeting can be done: size and placing in the paper can be determined, and the type of paper, such as business, youth, etc., can be determined.Ã A paper can be in print, or online. Cons of newspaper marketing The advert may not be noticed or read by the target audience, and the marketer has no control over who reads the paper.Ã Online adverts can be slow to download and can irritate the consumer. I believe that television marketing is still the most effective form of marketing. References CFDC, 2006, Ã¢â¬Å"Glossary of Business TermsÃ¢â¬ retrieved 15 May 2006 Entrepreneur.com, 2006 Ã¢â¬Å"Conducting a Break Even AnalysisÃ¢â¬ retrieved 15 May 2006 from the website http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/0,4621,318052,00.html How to cite Managing the Total Marketing Effort, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Hip-Hop/Rock Phenomenon It seems as though you can barely read a magazine or flip on the television without hearing about one of these new hip-hop/rock groups. Media outlets such as Rolling Stone and MTV treat these bands as though miraculously created this "new" genre of music. Acts such as Limp Bizkit, Kid Rock and Sugar Ray are treated though they are creative geniuses when in reality they are only doing things that have already been done before. True some of these new bands are very talented, but bands such Run DMC, the Red Hot Chili Peppers and Rage Against the Machine, blended the seemingly mismatched flavors of rap and rock with brilliant results long before any of these bands had ever even seen a turntable. The earliest recorded example of this fusion of hip-hop and hard rock, came in 1985 with the release of Run DMC's "Rock Box". The song featured a beat which sounded more like an AC/DC instrumental than what your average hip-hop consumer had grown accustomed to, nevertheless underneath the vocals of Run DMC the song was their first bonafied crossover hit. The single even landed them onto heavy rotation on MTV, making Run DMC the first hip-hop group to ever have their video played with the station. The song was only the first of a long string of hits for the group to feature hard rock beats, of course with pumped up bass and the prerequisite turntable scratch. Their success carried over to their remake of Aerosmiths classic "Walk This Way", which too became an instant classic. The record also marked the first direct collaboration between a rap group and a rock band. However while Run DMC was a hip-hop group with heavy rock influence, the Red Hot Chili Peppers are a perfect example of the exact opposite, a rock band with distinct hip-hop overtones. From as early back to the mid-eighties the Chili Peppers were trendsetters, they were regularly sharing headline in Los Angeles clubs with hip-hop acts, which one must remember was at a time when rap music was frowned upon by the rock community. Either way somewhere on their path they picked up on certain elements from hip-hop music and successfully incorporated them into their eclectic playing style. On recordings such as "Good Time Boys" from the bands critically acclaimed album Mothers Milk, it is not hard to see that he is indeed rapping to the beat as opposed to the usually singing which one would expect from an alternative band. But the genius lies in the fact that the song retains its original qualities keeping it from becoming a wannabe rap song, yet at the very same time it pushed the creative envelope for music as a whole and also pushing the Chili Peppers onto new creative ground. It was easy see that Run DMC and the Red Hot Chili Peppers were bands who while firmly rooted in one genre of music heavily borrowed elements from another genre. However Rage Against the Machine was much different than either one of these bands, it was the true brainchild of both hip-hop and hard rock. It could be argued with that with the release of their first album in 1992, that they were the first rap/rock band to truly be split right down the middle. The band utilized definite hard rock beats that could in no way be confused with any sort of hip-hop beat, however their vocalist Zach De La Rocha could in no way be taken for anything other than a rapper. It was a sharp contrast to the previous attempts to fuse the two styles of music together and the band did it beautifully. De La Rocha, whose previous experience as a rapper in various Los Angeles hip-hop groups, fit perfectly over the hard rock beats provided by his band mates. Fortunately the music scene was finally ready for their sound, which led to the group gaining critical acclaim and modest video play. Despite what the media is trying to sell the public, do not believe the hype. Hip-hop/rock hybrids are nothing new to the music scene, it is just the latest trend beingused to sell magazines and fuel album sales. Which is not necessarily wrong, it is only
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Government Regulation of Psychology Profession Introduction The legal aspect of professional psychology concerns itself with adherence to law and ethics governing the profession in areas relating to treatment of mental patients and subjects in empirical research. Government regulation of psychology profession is mostly done through formulation of relevant laws and creation of means of understanding the legal issues and questions in the field of professional psychology.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Government Regulation of Psychology Profession specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The professional practice of psychology has become increasingly complex in modern society which has resulted in renewed attention on issues regarding its legality and ethics. Ethics refer to the rules and guidelines that govern the conduct of psychology professionals. These are clearly outlined in the American Psychology AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics code which provide the standard s of professional conduct that psychologists are expected to adhere to when dealing with clients. On the other hand, law refers to a body of rules that govern the affairs of a specific community. While the ethics code has the force of law in situations where it is used as a licensing regulation, its violation does not necessarily imply violation of law. Legal Issues Relating To Informed Consent and Refusal The principle of informed consent dictates that participants in any form of psychology research and therapy should be adequately informed in an easy to understand language, of all the significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate in such processes (Rivera, 2010). The patients have a right to be informed about the possible physical and emotional risks associated with the treatment process and the psychologist should also inform them of alternative forms of treatment and their effects in order for patients to be able to make informed decisions. In the event where the patient is unable to understand the medical procedure consequently hindering his ability to make a decision, the professional psychologist should look for an experienced attorney in the health care field who should make the decision on behalf of the patient.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In absence of such a person, the doctor is under obligation to look for another authorized practitioner with whom they make appropriate decision of behalf of the client. The basis of legal doctrines of informed consensus lies in the ability of adult patients of sound mind to make decisions regarding the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s proposed medical procedure in self determination (Rivera, 2010). Psychologist and their clients engage in an extensive discussion regarding the medical procedure which serves to inform the patient of the possible risks and benefits associated with the pro cedures. In addition, the law requires such professionals to take rational steps to converse with patients in situations where there exists a communication barrier so that they are able to give an informed consent regarding their treatment. The right to give an informed consent also creates a provision for refusal rights. Patients and clients have a right to turn down any form of treatment regardless of its necessity upon which the professional psychologist should initiate further discussions. The patient may choose to reject the medication due to lack of trust, fear, depression, religious views among other factors and the practitioner should not use coercive means to convince the patient to agree to undergo treatment. Legal Issues in Assessment, Testing, And Diagnosis in Professional Psychology Psychological testing has continued to be a major mode of professional inquiry and is most commonly used in psychological research to measure varying constructs. Through psychometrics, profe ssional psychologists analyze samples of the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in order to assess their functioning. Often, concerns have been raised over ethical and legal issues regarding human treatment during the process of psychological assessment and testing. Consequently, facilities that conduct psychological testing are regulated through institutional review boards which govern the way subjects are treated during such processes.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Government Regulation of Psychology Profession specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through psychological assessment, psychologists engage in comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the subjects in order to come up with a diagnosis. Psychologists are under obligation to effectively communicate the results of the assessment to the client using clear and easy to understand language. If the practitioner does not present the results in person, it should be agr eed upon prior the assessment and he should ensure that the person delivering the information does so in a clear and competent manner. The security of results and client diagnosis should also be ensured and availability of the results should be limited to the client and the referral source unless otherwise indicated by the client. Legal issues relating to testing, assessment and diagnosis further seek to address the test bias associated with the process. Systematic error in measurement may occur in certain incidences due to existence of biasness towards minority groups especially in intelligence tests, psychopathology, and academic potential tests. In response to this, proposals to outlaw some of the psychological tests and develop more appropriate psychological assessment have been put forward. The law further requires that subjects in psychological research be treated in a humane way. Subjects in research should be reasonably and adequately compensated for their time and should be protected against stigmatization and discrimination. The United States congress has passed a number of influential legislative acts that relates to testing and assessment such as the civil rights Act, Americans with disability Act, and truth in testing law among other legislation. Importance of Maintaining Confidentiality in the Therapeutic Relationship Professional psychologists are obligated to ensure that the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to privacy is maintained through maintenance of confidentiality. It is regarded as a fundamental component of therapeutic relationships since it promotes trust between the practitioner and the client consequently facilitating positive outcomes.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The utilitarianism perspective argues that if confidentiality is not maintained, patients may fail to disclose all the relevant information which would prove damaging to the healing process (Anonymous, 2008). The deontology perspective argues that the role of maintaining client confidentiality is a universal moral obligation that therapists should seek to maintain (Anonymous, 2008). The relationship between the patient and therapist is based on the expectation that any form of information that the client reveals is going to be kept confidential failure to which results in undermining the universal moral obligation. Maintaining a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s confidentiality is viewed as respect to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy which enables him or her to have control over issues relating to own life such as the right to keep private information and make independent decisions regarding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health. There exist ethical and legal provisions that regulate confidentiality in therapeutic rel ationships. Failure to adhere to these regulations may lead to punitive measures which negatively impact on the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s career. However, various bodies have acknowledged that confidentiality cannot be absolute. For instance, The Australian Medical Association code of ethics, 2004 creates a provision for exceptions in maintaining confidentiality for cases where there is a serious risk to the patient or other people (Anonymous, 2008). Various legislations have also been enacted to deal with confidentiality issues which create provisions which render therapists liable in case of breach of confidentiality. Influence of Legislation on Professional Psychology Professional psychology practice in modern world is heavily influenced by various government legislations. Countries have formulated psychology profession acts which aim at regulating the activities carried out by psychology professionals. The acts often outline the qualifications of psychologist practitioners and dicta tes that such practitionersÃ¢â¬â¢ posses a valid license in order to establish their own practice. This serves to protect mental patients from unqualified practitioners who may be out to exploit them rather than providing them with the necessary treatment that they require. In United States, a number of legislations have been enacted which directly or indirectly affect the profession of psychology. Most of these acts are established by the federal government hence vary from one state to another. In most states, there exist specific laws that outline the educational requirement for such professionals. In the state of Virginia, practitioners should hold a doctorate degree in a psychology profession program from a recognized University and should be accredited by the American Psychology Association. This serves to ensure that the licensed psychologists are adequately trained and skilled to deal with the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. The law further governs the profession of psychology t hrough control of bodies which deal with issuance of license and have the ability to revoke such licensees upon failure by practitioner to adhere to rules and regulations governing the profession. In order to ensure that they remain in operation, professional psychologists adhere to the legal and ethical standards while dealing with clients. This ensures that the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s rights are upheld during the process of treatment which also plays an important role in the recovery process. Persons licensed by boards are also subject to other disciplinary actions upon failure to comply with the legal standards of the profession. A client who feels that his rights have been violated against during the course of treatment may sue the practitioner in a court of law for damages. Role of Competence in Professional Psychology The nature of work in professional psychology requires competent practitioners who are capable of dealing with diverse issues facing human mental health. This has led to shift within the profession towards emphasis on acquisition and maintenance of competence. This is achieved through development of educational programs that aim at producing competence and establishment of bodies that award credentials and certify practitioners as competent. Embracing a culture of confidence within the psychology profession promotes learning and innovation where practitioners can develop new and more effective means of dealing with psychological problems. Ensuring competence among professional psychologists protects the patients from unqualified practitioners and serves to promote effective service provision in the health sector. Conclusion Legal aspects of psychology play a key role in regulating the practice of professional psychology in society. It is especially important since it serves to protect the psychological ill from selfish drives of incompetent practitioners. The legal aspects seek to address issues regarding confidentiality of patientÃ¢â¬â¢s informa tion and protection of patients during the treatment period. Legal legislations relating to such issues serve to protect patients undergoing treatment and subjects in psychological research against exploitation and inhumane treatment. The law has therefore played an important role in regulation of the client therapy relationship which has boosted patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence encouraging them to seek help for various mental problems. Reference List Anonymous, (2008). Confidentiality in Therapeutic Relationships: The Need to Develop Comprehensive Guidelines for Mental Health Professionals. Web. Rivera, R. (2010). Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology. Web.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Southern California Institute of Architecture Admission Southern California Institute of Architecture Admissions Overview: In general, students with good grades and test scores are more likely to be accepted at SCI-Arc. Since the school is focused on architecture, students will need to submit a portfolio of work as part of the application. Additional required materials include a resume, personal statement, high school transcripts, letters of recommendation, and SAT or ACT scores. For more information, or if you have any questions about the admissions process, be sure to visit SCI-Arcs website, or get in touch with the schools admissions office. Admissions Data (2016): SCI-Arc Acceptance Rate: - %SCI-Arc has open admissionsTest Scores 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: - / -SAT Math: - / -SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanACT Composite: - / -ACT English: - / -ACT Math: - / -ACT Writing: - / -What these ACT numbers mean Southern California Institute of Architecture Description: The Southern California Institute of Architecture is an independent school of architecture in Los Angeles, California. The campus is located in the rehabilitated historic site of the Santa Fe Freight Depot, at the heart of the urban art district in downtown Los Angeles. The college takes an experimental approach to architecture education, emphasizing practical experience and encouraging undergraduate and graduate students to work together in a non-hierarchical environment. SCI-Arc offers one undergraduate program, a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in architecture, as well as two- and three-year master of architecture programs and two postgraduate master of design research programs in emerging systems and technologies and city design, planning and policy. Students benefit from the flexible, nontraditional program both inside and outside of class, with 24/7 access to architecture studio spaces, a unique cultural environment and various student-led clubs, activities and social events. Enrollment (2016): Total Enrollment: 519Ã (262 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 62% Male / 38% Female95% Full-time Costs (2016Ã - 17): Tuition and Fees: $42,900Books: $6,848Ã (why so much?)Room and Board: $7,260Other Expenses: $9,889Total Cost: $66,897 SCI-Arc Financial Aid (2015Ã - 16): Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 28%Percentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 28%Loans: 13%Average Amount of AidGrants: $18,668Loans: $5,500 Academic Programs: Most Popular Majors:Ã Architecture. Graduation and Retention Rates: First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 81%4-Year Graduation Rate: 67%6-Year Graduation Rate: 83% Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics If You Like SCI-Arc, You May Also Like These Schools: Pratt Institute: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphCarnegie Mellon University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphRhode Island School of Design: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphCalifornia Institute of Technology: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphHarvard University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphRice University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphNew York University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphArizona State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of Oregon: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphCornell University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUC - Berkeley: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphSyracuse University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph
Friday, February 14, 2020
Presentation critique - Essay Example The 18th century saw great movements to abolish the trade stem up and grow. In the early years of 19th century however, Britain as well as US declared the trade illegal and in 1833, the entire British Empire consented to the abolishment of the trade. The slave trade thrived in the Atlantic regions as was necessitated by the various commodities that were exchanged between Europe, Africa as well as America. The African continent offered Africans as slaves in exchange of commodities and in often times without any gain to America. The American continent on the other hand provided Europe with cotton, Tobacco and sugar. Africa then benefited through textile, rum as well as manufactured goods from the Europeans. The concern here would be how literature would reveal the mutual benefit between the three continents while in actual sense the Africans lost as slaves were fetched from them through disguise. Spain, France, Portugal, Norway, Netherlands, Sweden as well as England were the major cou ntries from Europe, which participated within the slave trade. The main merchandize of trade from the European continent were Brass utensils, beads, pewter, guns, gunpowder, spirits as well as food commodities. Trading nations were identified through hoisting of the flag and a specific slave trader would be stationed there for maintaining good relations with the African correspondences participating in the trade. Slaves were obtained through negotiations with the natives as well as by raids that were organized periodically by the Europeans. It is worth noting that the Africans played the two roles of perpetrators and victims to the slave trade. The Portuguese were strategic in the trade by targeting the African countries that were at war and they would side with one side and acquire slaves from the loosing country. The Africans therefore were wittingly used to capture and trade fellow Africans for trade under the disguise of collaboration while in other instances, Europeans would ra id Africans for such supplies. The actual journey in trade involved the transport of the slaves through water where depending on the number of slaves on board, the terms Ã¢â¬Ëloose-packingÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëtight-packingÃ¢â¬â¢. Loose packing meant that few slaves would be packed together with large quantities of cargo. Tight packing on the other hand had a higher percentage of live to dead slaves on board was bigger to that of loose packing. Tight packing however dominated much of the slave trade. The slaves suffered extreme conditions of heat, congestion in docks, sexual harassment, staying in chains as well as exposure to unhealthy conditions. In extreme cases, the slaves on transit would rebel and this would result too many deaths through suicide and violence. Nevertheless, there were exceptional cases where slaves received fair treatment from their captors as shown by the case of Olaudah Equiano who was capture at age 11 and received good treatment all through. The second p resentation however covers much of regulations and laws that were crafted to address the slave trade at different regions. For instance, in America, slavery was a common feature though existing policies and laws inhibited the rights of citizenship of the slaves there. The Northwest ordinance provided the boundary between states that adopted slaves and those that abolished it. Indentured servants were the commonly used aids instead of slaves within the Free states. There was a noted
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Life cycle of malaria - Outline Example These sporozoite stage plasmodiums enter into the blood circulation (Hall and Fauci, 1640). The merozoites invade and enter vulnerable erythrocytes from where they go through differentiation and replicate over several days. They are produced in large numbers and soon rupture the erythrocytes. These results in their release back into the circulation to begin the blood stage again (Hall and Fauci, 1640). The parasites may differentiate into gametocytes while in the blood stage. On been taken up by a feeding mosquito, the gametocytes replicate and mature into male and female gametes which fuse forming zygotes that go through differentiation and replication in the mosquito gut to form sporozoites that move to the salivary glands of the mosquito from where they can be transmitted (Hall and Fauci, (1640). a. Modifications of the plasmodium cells, the infected erythrocytes, and changes in transcript abudance during maturation of the parasite within the erythrocytes as Bozdech, Llinas, Pulliam et al., (n.p.) found out. Bozdech, Zbynek, Manuel Llinas, Brian Pulliam, et. al. Ã¢â¬Å"The Transcriptome of the Intraerythrocytic Developmental Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum.Ã¢â¬ Plos Biology 1.1, (2003); n. pag. Web. 24 March 2014. Delves, Michael, David Plouffe, Christian Scheurer, Stephan Meister, Sergio Wittlin, Elizabeth A. Weinzler, Robert E. Sinden and Didier Leroy. Ã¢â¬Å"The Activities of Current Antimalarial Drugs on the Life Cycle Stages of Plasmodium: A Comparative Study with Human and Rodent Parasites.Ã¢â¬ PloS Med 9.2 (2012): n. pag. Web. 9 March 2014. Hall, Fenton and Anthony Fauci. Ã¢â¬Å"Malaria Control, Elimination, and Eradication: The Role of the Evolving Biomedical Research Agenda.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of Infectious Diseases 200.11 (2009): 1639 Ã¢â¬â 1643. Web. 9 March 2014. Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada, Ian M. Hastings, Arjen Dondorp, Lisa J. White, Richard J. Maude, Sompob Saralamba, Nicholas P. Day Nicholas J. white and Maciej F.